Agencies of social control(social work)
1. Meaning Society or group maintains social control by creating its own agencies which may enforce formal or informal control. Agencies such as law, education, physical coercion and codes on the one hand, folkways, mores, customs, convention, tradition, religion, etc., on the other, have been used by the society for this purpose.
2. DEFINITION To Ogburn and Nimkoff;”the patterns of pressure which a society exerts to maintain order and established rules .” Landis defines social control, “as a social process by which individual is made group -responsive ,and by which social organization is built and maintained.” (Social Control.p.4) Lumely expresses social control, “as the
3. Family Neighbourhood Church Religion School Law Administration Force Folkways Mores Propaganda Sanctions Fashion Etiquette Rites, rituals, ceremonies Public Opinion TYPES OF AGENCIES
4. Family is an important agency of social control. It is the first place where an individual is socialized. He learns various methods of living, behaviour patterns, convention etc. from the family. He is taught to behave and respect social laws and obey social controls. He learns customs, folkways, traditions and modes from the family. Family influenced the Family
5. NEIGHBOURHOOD Neighbourhood is a simple and specific part of a community. It has a feeling or sentiment of local unit. There may be more than one Neighbourhood in a community. The neighbourhood is the first community with which the individual comes into contact with. It exists, a deep influence on its members as an agency of social control. The local Neighbourhood reinforces or strengthens the individual family as an agency of social control. It comes only after the family in social importance. The elder members of the Neighbourhood or locality, who are very intimate to one another, keep
6. Church Church is regarded as an institutionalized expression of religion. It serves as an agency of social control. In the past church was a powerful agency of social control for quite some time. The church and the priests were held in high esteem. The authority of the church was recognized and accepted by the
7. Religion serves as an important agency of social control. It is religion, which supports the folkways and modes of a society by playing super natural sanctions behind them. It adopts negative as well as positive means to regulate the behaviour of the individuals in society.
8. The School The school is a very powerful agency: of social control. It exercises social control through education. The child learns many things from the school, which he cannot learn from other sources. The child is taught to obey the discipline, which a student learns at school lasts with him throughout his life. In the college, also the students are required to obey social controls. The school and college or educational institutions are next to family as agencies of social control. It is the class room the peer group and the leaders who exercise influence on the child for his future role in society.
9. Law Law is a powerful method of control. The state runs its administration through the government. It enforces law within its territory with the help of the police, the army, the prison and the court; it enacts laws to regulate the lives of the people. The deviants or the violators of social rules are punished as per law; the state carries out certain function by means of law. E.A. Ross says that ‘law is the most specialized and highly furnished engine of social control employed by society. It is law, which prevents the people from indulging in antisocial activities. The lawbreakers are punished by the law of the state. It
10. ADMINISTRATION Administration is very powerful and the most effective instrument of social control. It forces the individual to obey social control. The administrations punish the violators with the help of the police, the army etc.
11. Force or Coercion of social control. It is ancient as society itself. It is essential for social progress. Even these days some societies resort to it against the deviants or those who disobey social norms. Every state has its own armed forces or police force. It is an effective weapon to prevent people from indulging in anti-social activities. It also makes people, obey social order. The state carries out its functions by means of law, which is ultimately backed by physical force. As an important agency of social, control the state exercises its force over its people through various means such as the government law, administration, the armed forces, the police and the like.
12. Folkways ‘Folkways’ refer to the ways of the people. They are “the repetitive petty acts of the people “. Folkways are the norms to which people conform because it is expected of them. Conformity to the folkways is neither required by law nor enforced by any special agency of society.
13. Mores ‘Mores’ or’ Morals’ represent another category of norms. When folkways’ act as regulators of behaviour then they become ‘mores’. Mores are considered to be essential for group welfare. The positive mores prescribe behaviour patterns while the negative mores or taboos prescribe or prohibit behaviour patterns.
Agencies of social control(social work)