4. e Refers to the fact that an individual (or group of individuals) may be slightly non- conformist to the general trend of society. It does not constitute an illegal act.
5. e Informal deviants are people / groups of people therefore whose behaviour might raise an eyebrow but will not encourage a person to call the police. Informal deviants are people who are simply “different” for some reason or another.
6. e We are all informally deviant to some degree or another.
7. A group of people in society whose behaviour (and sometimes style of dress) is significantly different from wider society – so much so that they have a unique culture (away of life).
8. e Describes an act committed by a person or group of persons that contravenes (goes against) the established laws of society.
10. Deviance is a continuous variable – it is constantly changes shape and nature. It does this because what is deviant is determined by society. Deviance is a socially constructed term. Thus crime and deviance are relative terms; they are subject to change across time and location.
11. Social control exists to prevent negative deviance (that is deviance which can be damaging to others)
12. Refers to the techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society. It occurs in all levels of society.
13. Conformity •means going along with peers- individuals of our own status, who have no special right to direct our behavior.
14. Obedience •compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure.
15. Formal Social Control • a social control that is carried out by authorized agents Informal Social Control • a social control that is carried out casually by ordinary people.
16. Social control is exercised through the use of sanctions.
17. exercised by a group (or groups) that fall under the concept “formal social control”. it is a reward for a good behaviour.
18. Formal Negative Sanctions exercised by “people in suits” so to speak. form of a punishment for bad behaviour/ undesirable behaviour rather than a reward.
19. Applied by groups in society that we are most likely to turn to for guidance. They are groups that fall under the term “informal social control” e.g. family, peer groups. I-shot lang na bes. Ikanta ra na bahalag yabag ka.
20. I told you you’re wrong about him. I’m the right one! Agencies of informal social control do, however, also exercise negative sanctions. Hence, agents of informal control also provide punishments as well as rewards;
21. Peter was a 29 year old man who, following a car accident in his teens, has been blind most of his life. He has learned that most of his activities now involve asking people for help. This is something he resents. If he doesn’t get help he gets told off by both his mother as well as his visiting carer. He has longed to live an independent life and, despite accepting that there are some things he cannot do any more, he established a reputation as the local bowls champion and one day hopes to be world champion. SOURCE; Idea partly influence by Moores’ “Sociology Alive!” and Ray Henshaw and Bernadette Howells’ “Health”)
22. 1) Describe briefly the two main types of social control that Peter comes into contact with. 2) What type of sanctions do you think Peter’s mother applies to Peter when he tries to act independently? Give your reasons. 3) What type of social control Peter’s friends would apply to him in the bowling centre? (Would you class it as formal / informal?) Give your reasons.