Since the dawn of civilization man has been striving hard to manage his affairs systematically. The desire to become systematic to the point and precise has led human being to develop variety of disciplines. These disciplines with the march of civilization failed to keep pace with the human driving force. Resultantly new avenues are sought for governance. In case of Afghanistan, mismanagement has become a hallmark of our management.
Good governance is needed to make both the public and private sectors effective. A well governed country has also both these sectors well administered and in harmony with each other. When a country is not politically sound its institutions will also be in poor condition. Cohesion between these sectors is impossible in the absence of good governance. In our country we can see that due to the bad governance our public and private sectors are in a great mess.
Every institution of public sector is suffering from mal-administration and worst corruption. The people reluctantly visit these institutions because they know the truants and dishonest elements would not lend half an ear. Even for public utilities, people have to offer bribe. Without any favor or bribe it is very difficult to get any work done from the public offices. Moreover, due to the malpractices of the public officials and misappropriation of public funds the infrastructure of public institutions has become cracked and a situation like chaos is prevailing all over the country. So, good governance is strictly needed in order to make governmental machinery effective.
Afghanistan’s 26.59m population with 36% below poverty line continues to face daunting challenges, including endemic poverty and lack of human capacity; insecurity; weak governance and institutionalized corruption; opium exports equal to 22% of gross domestic product; rampant gender inequality; and policy, regulatory, and institutional constraints that have limited effective growth in public and private sectors.
Governance is the dynamic interaction between people, structures, processes and traditions that support the exercise of legitimate authority in provision of sound leadership, direction, oversight, and control of an entity in order to ensure that its purpose is achieved, and that there is proper accounting for the conduct of its affairs, the use of its resources, and the results of its activities.
Good governance is an indeterminate term used in development literature to describe how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources in order to guarantee the realization of human rights. Governance describes “the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented)”. It is participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive, and follows the rule of law. It is responsive to the present and future needs of the government, exercises prudence in policy-setting and decision-making, and that the best interests of all stakeholders are taken into account.
Good governance requires fair legal frameworks that are enforced by an impartial regulatory body, for the full protection of stakeholders.
Transparency means that information should be provided in easily understandable forms and media; that it should be freely available and directly accessible to those who will be affected by governance policies and practices, as well as the outcomes resulting there from; and that any decisions taken and their enforcement are in compliance with established rules and regulations.
One of the requirements is that governments and their processes are designed to serve the best interests of stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe. It requires consultation to understand the different interests of stakeholders in order to reach a broad consensus of what is in the best interest of the entire stakeholder group and how this can be achieved in a sustainable and prudent manner. The government that provides the opportunity for its stakeholders to maintain, enhance, or generally improve their well-being provides the most compelling message regarding its reason for existence and value to society.
Other requisites is the means that the processes implemented by the government to produce favorable results meet the needs of its stakeholders, while making the best use of resources, human, technological, financial, natural and environmental at its disposal.
Accountability is a key tenet of good governance. Who is accountable for what should be documented in policy statements. In general, a government is accountable to those who will be affected by its decisions or actions as well as the applicable rules of law.
Participation by both men and women, either directly or through legitimate representatives, is a key cornerstone of good governance. Participation needs to be informed and organized, including freedom of expression and assiduous concern for the best interests of the government and society in general.
The crucial importance of good governance can be witnessed by the experience of East Asian countries. Between 1965 and 1990, the region registered the highest growth rate in the world and combined it with high living standards. The single most important factor in this economic miracle was the fact that these countries were able to put in place sound and sustainable framework.
Independence of judiciary must be maintained which can exercise an effective system of check and balance and can prevent politicians from abuse of power.
Economic and political stability are deeply interlinked. Without one the other cannot be obtained, so government must evolve strait and requires a major re-structuring. Then continuity of policy is required without which, no result would be obtained.
People must be educated without which they cannot protect their rights. Press can play a vital role in creating awareness among people regarding their problems and their solutions. In this way people would be able to demand their rights and will perform their duties in a more organized way. Thus, we can say without proper civic sense good and effective governance cannot be obtained.
Whereas good governance is needed for the smooth running of public institutions, it is also essential for maintaining the sovereignty of the country. If a country is poorly governed and there is a political instability, its enemies find opportunities in this situation and try to undermine it. While a badly governed country has many other problems to solve, it cannot ensure its security. A good governed country is economically strong and all the departments of the country function smoothly. It enables the rulers to strengthen the country’s security.
With Thanks To: http://outlookafghanistan.net