1. Social control Meaning of social control Need of social control Social control theory Types of social control Objectives and functions of social control Social sanctions and its types
2. The word ‘control’ may refer to two types of acts: 1. To an act of controlling; or 2. To the process, technique, device by means of which changes in the behavior is affected. As applied to human relationships, the term ‘control’ may carry either of these meanings. Sociologists are generally interested in social controls (second meaning of control) rather than in the act of controlling. It is social to the extent that it involves communication. The control becomes social only when it brings modifications in behavior resulting from act of communications and not from arbitrary applications of physical force.
3. DEFINATION ”Social control is a concept that refers to the ways in which people’s thoughts, feelings, appearance, and behavior are regulated in social systems. Social control, however, is mainly done through socialization in which people come to identify with a social system and its values and norms, thereby acquiring a stake in maintaining those values and norms”
4. Social control which implies the social intercourse is regulated in accordance with established and recognized standards. The aim of social order: PARSONS SAID: “Is nipping deviant tendencies in the bud” If that be not done, social order would cease to exist; the law of the brute would prevail. The world would be that ‘brutish’ and ‘nasty’ state will prevail in society.
5. Social control works always and all the time. But in view of the fact that society is subject to external impact, and internal revulsions, that continuity and change is the character of social system. The enforcement of social control is not simple. The danger is always present, it cannot be eliminated. It is also not tolerable. The effectiveness of social control would therefore depend on the appropriate coordination of the accepted means of social control.
6. social control is nothing but control of the society over individuals. In order to maintain the organization and the order of the society, man has to be kept under some sort of control. This control is necessary in order to have desired behavior from the individual and enable him to develop social qualities. “Social control is the term sociologists apply to those mechanisms by which any society maintains a normative social system. It refers to all the ways and means by which society enforces conformity to its norms”.
7. ROSS SAID: “Social control refers to the system of devices whereby society brings its members into conformity with the accepted standard of behavior”. OGBURN AND NIMKOFF SAID: “social control refers to the patterns of pressure which society exerts to maintain order and established rules”.
8. ACCORDING TO MACLVER: “Social control is the way in which entire social order coheres and maintains itself – how it operates as a whole, as a changing equilibrium.” AS GILLIN SAY: “Social control is the system of measures, suggestions, persuasion, restrain and coercion by whatever means including physical force by which society brings into conformity to the approved pattern of behavior, a subgroup or by which a group molds into conformity its members”.
9. Social control is necessary for an orderly social life. The society has to regulate and pattern individual behavior to maintain normative social order. Without social control the organization of the society is about to get disturbed. If the individual is effectively socialized, he confirms to the accepted ways from force of habit as well as from his desire of being accepted and approved by other persons. According to Kimball Young, it is necessary “to bring about conformity, solidarity and continuity of a particular group or society”
10. Various social thinkers have expressed their views in different ways about the need of social control which are discussed as under: Reestablishing the OLD Social System Regulation of Individual Social Behavior Obedience to Social Decisions To Establish Social Unity To bring Solidarity To bring Conformity in Society To Provide Social Sanction To Check Cultural Maladjustment
11. 1. REESTABLISHING THE OLD SOCIAL SYSTEM: The main need of the social control is to keep the existing order intact. In other words it is the desire of the society to make its member to live in manner in which their forefathers have been living. 2. REGULATION OF INDIVIDUAL SOCIAL BEHAVIOR: Social control is necessary in order to regulate the individual behavior in accordance with the social objectives and social values. This helps to maintain the social order. Unless the individuals live up to the prescribed norms of conduct and unless their self-seeking impulses are subjugated to the welfare of the whole, it would be quite difficult to maintain social organization effectively.
12. 3. OBEDIENCE TO SOCIAL DECISIONS: Society takes certain decisions. These decisions are taken in order to maintain and upheld the values of the society. Through social control attempt is made to get the social decision obeyed. 4. TO ESTABLISH SOCIAL UNITY: Unity is not possible without social control. Social control regulates the behavior of individuals in accordance with established norms which brings uniformity of behavior and brings unity among the individuals.
13. 5. TO BRING SOLIDARITY: Social control is to create the feeling of solidarity in the minds of people. In the competitive world, the weaker group may be exploited by the stronger group or equally powerful groups may clash among themselves. 6. TO BRING CONFORMITY IN SOCIETY: Social control is intended to bring about uniformity in the behavior of the individual members of the society and to bring about different types of conformities in their societies.
14. 7. TO PROVIDE SOCIAL SANCTION: Any marked deviation from the accepted norms, is considered a threat to the welfare of the group as a whole. Hence, sanctions are used by the group to control the behavior of the individuals. 8. TO CHECK CULTURAL MALADJUSTMENT: Society is continuously undergoing changes. The individual has to adjust his behavior according to changes taking place in the society. But all the individuals cannot adjust themselves to new situations. Some may become deviants. Thus, social control is necessary to cheek maladjustment of individuals.
15. “The Social Control theory explains how social factors such as religion, economics, family and education relate to the choices and actions of an individual”
16. Author of the Social Bond Theory Hirschi was born in 1935 and graduated from University of Arizona His theories show little interest in race, gender, and class.
18. The relationships established with others, especially parents. Attachments are formed through the use of intimate communication. Parents can develop a method of indirect control. Which means, youngsters refrain from deviant behavior because the parents relationship is psychologically present.
19. The higher educational and occupational aspirations an individual holds, the higher the cost for turning to crime. Conforming to social standards becomes a higher priority in achieving specific set goals. It is only rational for a person to be concerned with his or her own self-interest
20. People are less likely to be involved in criminal activity when involved in activities such as sports, school activities, homework, and their recreational pursuits. The less time available for leisure equals less time to get in trouble. Devoting energy to productive task reduces the chances to offend
21. People with a strong moral belief in the law are less likely to engage in criminal activity. Beliefs are based on a constant social reinforcement. A fundamental understanding of right and wrong is crucial to reducing criminal activity. Core Values
22. Karl Mannheim, the famous social thinker, has categorized social control under the following two heads: 1. Direct social control 2. Indirect social control
23. “That type of social control which directly regulates and controls the behavior of the individual is called Direct Social Control.”
24. This type of control is to be found in family, neighborhood, play-groups and other types of primary groups. In these institutions, parents, neighbors, teachers, classmates etc., keep control over the behavior of the individuals.
25. “In this type of social control distant factors keep control over the behavior of the individual.”.
26. Such a type of control is exercised by secondary groups through customs; 1. traditions, 2. rationalized behavior etc. 3. public opinion are important forms of indirect social control.
27. 1. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE MEANS: There are two types of means according to Kimble young. One is positive means which exists in form of praise, prizes, fame and respect. Another mean is negative, which found in the shape of criticism, punishment and shames.
28. SOCIAL CONTROL THROUGH FORCE AND SYMBOL: Lumby classified social control as by force and symbol. By force he is of the view that to exert force on individuals which through symbols. He includes praise, rewards, groups, stare, propaganda and criticism etc.
29. CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS CONTROL: Bernarol has classified it on the basis of conscious and unconscious. Conscious social control is developed in the real sense by the society (law). While the unconscious is followed by individuals but have no attention towards it and adopt unconsciously i.e. customs and traditions.
30. Formal control is designed and regulated by some authority like government makes law to control order. Informal is the unwritten rules and regulations characterized by informal authority like criticism, sociability, public opinion etc.
31. CONTROL BY CONSTRUCTIVE AND EXPLOITATIVE MEANS: It includes education and social reforms while through exploitation means control through threats and intimidation and censorship. Real and Artificial control: Artificial social control imposes by an individual on himself without the force of society. It is also called self control. While real control is enforced by the society on individuals and they are bound to follow these rules due to fear of punishment.
32. According to GURVITCH social control is of the following four types: (a) Organized social control: In this type of social control, the behavior of the individual is regulated either through voluntary means or through democratic ways. This is done through natural ways of social control. (b) Unorganized social control: This social control is exercised by values of culture and usages, traditions, fashion, symbol etc. This is an elastic type of social control and is related to day-to-day life.
33. SPONTANEOUS SOCIAL CONTROL: This type of social control is exercised by ideas, rules and regulations, values, norms etc. (d) MORE SPONTANEOUS SOCIAL CONTROL: Social control that is exercised by direct social and group experience, such as, aspirations, decisions, desires, etc., is called more spontaneous social control.
34. Kimball Young (1942) stated that the social control aims to “bring about conformity, solidarity and continuity of a particular group or society’. It is essential for the continued existence of the society”. On the basis of above analysis, the main objectives of social control may be stated as under: To regulate the individual behavior and avoid clash in the society.
35. To maintain and re-establish the social order. To establish unity and solidarity among the members. To ensure the continuity of the group or the society. To secure member’s conformity to the group expectations. To bring society’s recalcitrant and deviant members back into the line. To check cultural degeneration and social disintegration.
36. Following are the functions of social control: It forces persons to get obeyed social decisions. It maintains the equilibrium and stability in the society. It helps in choosing behavior and fulfilling one’s desire for social status. It helps in proper socialization of the individual. It helps in performing social roles. It helps in mitigating tensions and conflict among members. It breeds conformity in society.
37. “A sanction is a reward or punishment that a norm associates with a behavior or appearance” All social norms are accompanied by social sanctions. Any system of social control depends on sanctions. The sanctions which enforce norms are a major part of the mechanism of social control. A sanction is any reaction from others to the behavior of an individual or group.
38. According to Oxford Dictionary of Sociology (1994): “any means by which conformity to socially approved standards is enforced, is called social sanction.” Sanctions may also be defined as the deprivations which accompany or follow behavior which is disapproved. The concept has played an important part in the explanation of social order. Sanctions help enforce society’s value system and uphold common beliefs about what is right and wrong
39. Following are the types of social sanction: positive or negative physical or psychological and formal or informal Combination
40. “An expression of approval and a reward for compliance” When society applies a positive sanction it means social controls are successful; a desired behavior occurred and thus rewarded. Rewards for being detected of conforming to a social norm may include: A pay raise A promotion A medal or an award Words of praise A pat on the back
41. “An expression of disapproval for noncompliance” Incorrect behavior elicits negative sanctions that may be mild to severe and physical or psychological, depending on the circumstances. Penalties for your conduct regarding a social norm Sanctions are what happens when people are detected of violating a culture’s shared norms. Such penalties as: Fines Threats Imprisonment Stares of Contempt
42. Physical sanctions bring pleasure or pain in a physical sense. Physical sanctions may include sitting a child in a corner or taking a time-out, or grounding. Physical sanctions for positive behavior in children include hugging, a pat on the back or issuing an allowance.
43. psychological sanctions address a person’s feelings or emotions. Shame is a psychological sanction used to repress aggressive or undesirable behavior as well as a means to dominate and manipulate social status.
44. “Spontaneous, unofficial expressions of approval or disapproval that are not backed by the force of law” Informal sanctions remind others that their behavior is displeasing. Some examples of informal sanctions are frowning, smiling, condemnation, praise, applause or rejection.
45. “Expressions of approval or disapproval backed by laws, rules, or policies that specify (usually in writing) the conditions under which people should be rewarded or punished and the procedures for allocating rewards and administering punishments” When informal social sanctions are no longer sufficient in bringing about conformity, the norms become laws that are punishable by formal sanctions such as imprisonment, probation or community service. Formal entities like police, courts and correctional institutions enforce the laws and punish those who act against them.
46. Criminal sanctions Civil sanctions Contempt of court sanctions Administrative agency sanctions International sanctions
47. Both positive and negative formal sanctions are typically public, such as awarding of prizes, announcements, news articles, parades and public court. Both positive and negative Informal psychological sanctions are actions by peers or groups and include gossip, congratulations, ridicule or laughter. Informal negative sanctions typically occur in public places, such as a school, library or church where the offender’s inappropriate behavior results in expulsion.