2. SOCIAL GROUP Unit of interacting personalities with interdependence of roles and statuses existing between and among themselves. Collection of people where members interact on a regular basis, guided by structure and agreements, defined by roles and responsibilities.
3. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION Type of collectivity established for the pursuit of specific aims or goals. Characterized by a formal structure of rules, authority relations, a division of labor and limited membership or admission.
4. OTHER COLLECTIONS NOT CONSIDERED AS SOCIAL GROUPS AGGREGATES COLLECTIVITY SOCIAL CATEGORY
5. CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIAL GROUP Group members interact on a fairly regular basis through communication. Members should develop a structure where each member assumes a specific status and adopts a particular role. Certain orderly procedures and values are agreed upon. The members of the group feel a sense of identity.
6. TYPES OF SOCIAL GROUPS According to Social Ties Primary Group • It is the most fundamental unit of human society. • A long-lasting group • Characterized by strong ties of love and affection. • Do’s and Don’ts of behavior are learned here. Examples: Families, Gangs, Cliques, Play Groups, Friendship Groups
7. SECONDARY GROUPS Groups with which the individual comes in contact later in life. Characterized by impersonal, business-like, contractual, formal and casual relationship. Usually Large in size, not very enduring and limited relationships. People needed other people for the satisfaction of their complex needs. Examples: Industrial Workers; business associates, Faculty Staff, Company Employees
8. ACCORDING TO SELF-IDENTIFICATION IN-GROUP a social unit in which individuals feel at home and with which they identify. OUT-GROUP a social unit to which individuals do not belong due to differences in social categories and with which they do not identify. REFERENCE/PSYCHOLGICAL GROUP groups to which we consciously or unconsciously refer when we evaluate our life situations and behavior but to which we do not necessarily belong. It serve a comparison function It has a normative function
9. ACCORDING TO PURPOSE Special Interest Groups groups which are organized to meet the special interest of the members. Task Group groups assigned to accomplish jobs which cannot be done by one person. Influence or Pressure Groups groups organized to support or influence social actions.
10. ACCORDING TO GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION AND DEGREE OR QUALITY OF RELATIONSHIP Gemeinschaft A social system in which most relationships are personal or traditional. It is a community of intimate, private and exclusive living and familism. Culture is homogeneous and tradition-bound. Gesselschaft A social system in which most relationships are impersonal, formal, contractual or bargain-like. Relationship is individualistic, business-like, secondary and rationalized Culture is heterogeneous and more advanced.
11. ACCORDING TO FORM OF ORGANIZATION Formal Groups Social organization Deliberately formed and their purpose and objectives are explicitly defined. Their goals are clearly stated and the division of labor is based on member’s ability or merit Bureaucracy an administrative structure w/c is aimed to enable members meet their goals. A hierarchical arrangement in large scale formal organizations in w/c parts are ordered in the manner of a pyramid based on a division of function and authority. Formal, rationally organized social structure
12. CHARACTERISTICS OF BUREAUCRACY Positions and offices are clearly defined The hierarchical arrangement of authority, rights and obligations is specifically drawn and clear-cut The personnel are selected on the basis of technical or professional qualification and expert training and competence through competitive examination Definite rules govern official behavior Security of tenure and the pursuit of a career with promotion in the hierarchy are assured
13. Informal Groups Arises spontaneously out of the interactions of two or more persons. It is unplanned Has no explicit rules for membership and does not have specific objectives to be attained. It has the characteristics of primary groups and members are bound by emotion and sentiments. Relationship Groups Groups organized to fulfill the feeling of companionship.
14. ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE GROUP FUNCTIONING Democratic or “participate” leadership is employed. Flexible patterns of communication are used. A cooperative problem-solving approach to discussion is employed rather than a competitive “win-lose” approach. Members deal openly and candidly with one another. Decision techniques which favor a sharing of responsibility via protection of the individual rights are used rather than techniques which place the responsibility clearly in the hands of but a portion of a group.
16. LEADERSHIP, QUALITIES OF A LEADER, STYLE OF LEADERSHIP
17. The process of influencing the activities of individuals in a group towards the attainment of group goals in a given situation. It implies the existence of particular influence relationship between two or more persons.
18. QUALITIES OF A LEADER They have traits such as • Intelligence • Dominance • Charisma • Enthusiasm • Courage • Determination • Self-confidence • High sense of integrity • Tact • Diplomacy • Involvement
19. Groups needed leaders for two basic purposes : To direct various tasks Provide support to group members Task Leadership the act of directing a group toward its goal. Socio-Emotional Leadership the act of maintaining good spirits.