1. SOCIAL ORGANISATION AND SOCIAL SYSTEM Unit – X Sociology of Nursing
2. Social organization: elements, types Democratic and authoritarian modes of participations Voluntary associations Social system: Definition and Types of social system Role and Status as structural elements of social system Inter-relationship of institutions
3. ► Organization is an orderly relationship or arrangement of parts. ► Thus family, church, college, factory, a play group, a political party, a community all are examples of an social organization. ► Social organization is used to refer the interdependence and inter-related of parts in groups. ► Social organization is the organization of society, it is a system of relationship in groups. ► Social organization refers to ‘the way people relate themselves to one another’.
4. Duncan Mitchell – “Social organization means the interdependence of parts, which is an essential characteristics of all enduring collective groups, communities and societies”. Leonard Broom and Philip Selznick – social organization “as the patterned relations of individuals and groups”. H.M. Johnson – “organization refers to an aspect of interaction system”.
5. Political organization: State (Government) Economic organization: Factory Religious organization: Church Financial organization: Bank Educational organization: school and colleges All these organizations are called social organization, that is, organization of society. Social organization is used in wider sense to include any organization of society.
6. A Goal: The member of an organization are inter-related to each other for the pursuit of a common goal. Preparedness to accept one’s role and status: Organization is an arrangement of persons and parts. By arrangement is meant that every member of the organization has an assigned role, a position and status.
7. Norms and Mores: Every organization has its norms and mores which control its members. An organization can function smoothly if its members follow the organization norms. Sanctions: If a member does not follow the norms he is compelled to follow them through sanctions (conditions) which may range from warning to physical punishment. e.g. expelled, dismissed.
8. Democratic participation: A democratic participation usually consult with subordinates on planned actions, decisions and participations from them. Democratic participation includes Participative leaders who encourage group members to participate. Group members feel engaged in the process and are more motivated and creative. Democratic leaders offer guidance to group members, but they also participate in the group and allow input from other group members.
9. Authoritarian: This type of participation is based on the use of coercive power. Authoritarian participation induced greater dependency on the leader, low frequencies of suggestions for group action and group policy, dissatisfaction with group and high quantity but low quality of productivity. Authoritarian leaders make decisions independently with little or no input from the rest of the group.
10. A voluntary association or union is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement to form a body (or organization) to work together for a purpose. Which perform varied functions for the welfare, integration and solidarity of the society. Article 19 (1) (c) of the constitution of India confers on the Indian citizens the ‘right to form association’. In the U.N. terminology voluntary organizations are called nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). David L Sills – “Voluntary organization is a group of persons organized on the basis of voluntary membership without state control for the furtherance of some common interests of its members”.
11. It is registered under some Act for legal status. It has definite aims and objectives and programmes for fulfillment and achievement. It has an administrative structure. It is initiated and governed by its own members. It raises funds from the contributions or subscription from the members of the local community and/or the beneficiaries of the programmes.
12. The concept of social system is closely related to the concept of social structure/function. The various groups or parts do not act in an independent and isolated manner. On the basis of they will interactions and interrelationship with other part, persons or groups and they create a pattern which is called social system. A social system is an orderly and systematic arrangement of social interactions. The arranged of a particular manner which called organic structure or organic system.
13. Social system means a network of interactive relationships. Loomis – “Social system is constituted of a plurality of individual interacting with each other according to shared cultural norms and meaning”. Spencer – “A society has a structure it also consists of the interrelated parts, such as the family, religion, the state and so on”.
14. Classification by Morgan and other Evolutionists: Savagery social system – wild Barbarian social system – uncivilized Civilized social system – modern They also classified basis of means of livelihood: Hunting social system – nomadic Pastoral social system – semi-settle Agricultural social system – rural Industrial social system – urban Durkheim’s Classification Mechanical Social System – ancient societies Organic Social System – modern societies
15. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Belief and Knowledge Sentiment End, goal or objective Norm Status Role Rank Power Sanction and Facility
16. Individuals differ not only in such attributes of sex, colour, height, age etc., but also differ in behaviour of their occupations. Some persons are professors, physicians, labourers, scientists, soldiers etc., It is an expected behaviour in a given individual for social status and social position. Role refers to the obligations which an individual has towards his group. Role is the function of particular individual in a particular field.
17. Lundberg – “is a pattern of behaviour expected of an individual in a certain group or situation”. Davis – “Role is the manner in which a person actually carries out the requirements of his position”.
18. Status is the position which an individual has in society. In social system each individual has a status. The element of status is found in every social system. In the family there are statuses of father, mother, son, daughter, etc., Likewise there are statuses in a club, school, union or factory.
19. Secord and Bukman – “Status is the worth of a person as estimated by a group or a class of persons”. Ogburn and Nimkoff – “Status is the rank-order position assigned by a group to a role or set of roles”. Mazumdar – “Status means the location of the individual within the group, his place in the social network of reciprocal obligations and privileges, rights and duties”.
20. Ascribed status: It is one which an individual gets at his birth. It is conferred to him by his group or society. It may be based on sex, age, caste or colour. Achieved status: It is one which an individual achieves by his efforts. A man born in a low caste may, be his efforts, become the Prime Minister and achieve thereby a high status.
21. A social structure is maintained by proper adjustment of relationships among the different institutions. No institutions works in alone. Religion, education, family, government and business all interact on each other. Thus education creates attitudes which influence the acceptance or rejection of religious beliefs. Business conditions may influence the family life. Unemployment may determine the number of people who feel unable to marry.
22. Thus social institutions are closely related to each other. The family is the center while education, religion, government and economics are the spokes of the wheel. Breakdown of economic institutions may have radical effects upon political institutions. Any change in an institution may led to a change in the other institutions. No institution can avoid affecting other institutions or avoid being affected by others.