- 1. Social Institutions Study Unit 9.1 By C. Settley
- 2. Learning Outcomes • Define the following concepts • Social institutions • Social organizations • Describe the classification of organization • Discuss the general characteristics of a social organization as applied to the hospital as an organization of a healthcare institution • Division of labour • Authority • Communication • Formality and rigidity
- 3. Social Institutions Page 189 • Humans have basic social needs – belonging, support for the young etc. • These different fields of needs have been classified by Sociologists hence the concept: social institutions • Defined: Social Institutions are the major spheres of social life, organized in such a way that they fulfill human needs
- 4. The Five basic Social Institutions • 1) The family • 2) Education • 3) Religion • 4) Economics • 5) Politics
- 5. Social Institutions: The Family • The family is the most basic of all institutions • It serves the person’s need to belong and to receive and give love. • Satisfies the need for care and socialization • Cornerstone for individuals to function in society • More than 90% of all people prefer to live within a family unit
- 6. Social Institutions: Economic Institutions • Enables a society to survive economically. • Through the provision of services such as banks. • Fosters business potential in communities. • Without the economy, societies would not be able to trade, import and export goods etc.
- 7. Social Institutions: Social group • A number of specific identifiable people Institution • A system of organised, standarised patterns of social behaviour
- 8. Organization: The Hospital • Individuals spend their whole lives in organizations • School, formal education • Organizations are structured- roles, positions, functions, rules and regulations • Formal organizations- certain activities are performed by certain people. They get paid to do so. In accordance to rules and regulations. • To achieve the organizational goal/philosophy/mission/vision
- 9. A classification of organizations (4 types). See page 190. Pattern maintenance • Responsible for the functions of cultural transfer and socialization • Expressive function eg arts, schools Adaptive organization • Orientated towards economic production • Eg small and large business organisations
- 10. A classification of organizations Goal Attainment Organizations • Concerned with the attainment of political goals • Eg the government of a country Integrative Organizations • Function is to maintain social control • ITC management control in South Africa
- 11. General characteristics of organization • Division of labor- prescribed tasks/job descriptions • Authority – Traditional: how it is done. Obedience is reinforced – Rational-legal: lawful. Invoking an existing law. – Charismatic: obedience to a person rather than impersonal legal system – Line: vertical ranking of staff members – Staff: specialized knowledge to support line function.
- 12. General characteristics of organization. Continued… • Communication- vertical
- 13. General characteristics of organization. Continued… • Communication- horizontal
- 14. General characteristics of organization. Continued… • Formality and rigidity- activities, meetings • Activities must take place according to certain rules. • Bureaucratic structure of a hospital requires every rule to the letter being followed. • Not always possible. • Sometimes necessary to bend rules to benefit the patient.
- 15. Characteristics of Social Institutions The comb like structure of the Hospital as organization Nursing Department Medical Department Deputy Director: Nursing Services Chief Medical Officer Hospital Manager Chief Executive OfficerChief Executive Officer
- 16. References • Du Toit, D.A. & Van Staden S.J. (2009). Nursing Sociology. 4th Edition. Pretoria: Van Schaik